Alkalinity – Quick Reference

Alkalinity – Quick Reference Alkalinity (kH) is also referred to as carbonate hardness. Alkalinity is a measure of the buffering capacity of water, or water’s capacity to resist changes in pH. Since most biochemical activity in aquariums results in more acid conditions, alkalinity tends to decrease. Total alkalinity is determined by the amount of free […]

Ammonia – Quick Reference

Ammonia – Quick Reference Ammonia (NH3) is produced by organic waste, decaying plant and animal matter and is deadly to aquatic life. Ammonia is very toxic and is not tolerated at any level! Common causes of ammonia in an established tank include: • fish overload • overfeeding • filter failure • poor maintenance • medications […]